The French population regularly experiences the effects of strike action, as it did this week with unions demanding improvements to worker pay and conditions across different sectors. We look at some key phrases used to describe this type of industry action in French.
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The most obvious term associated with industry action in France is grève (strike).
It has been claimed that the use of the word grève for ‘strike’ comes from Place de Grève in Paris – which is now Place de l’Hôtel de Ville – because in mediaeval times unemployed people would gather in the square to try to find work.
The origin of the term grève can be found in the Vulgar Latin word grava, meaning ‘gravel’. Grève was first recorded in 876, meaning plage (beach).
The term began to be used to mean a gravelly or sandy stretch or area of land, and then “the common space [or] meeting place of citizens [...] a place of exchange, selling, haggling,” according to Tournier.
Paris’ Place de Grève became one of these market squares, as its name might suggest.
In this time, workers may ‘faire la grève’, that is, set off for one of these squares in search of goods or employment. In Des mots sur la grève, Tournier writes: “If one was not happy with their employer, one could leave them and revenir en grève [go back to the grève].”
It is from this – the idea of ceasing work to look for a better offer – that the modern term likely originates.
Read also: France strikes: Will they continue? Will they work? What experts say
2. Préavis de grève
Unions must publish a préavis de grève (strike notice) to employers five days before the industry action is due to take place in the public sector.
In the private sector, this is not obligatory.
3. Service minimum
The term service minimum refers to a minimum guaranteed service in the case of strike action.
This exists in certain sectors in France, including schools and healthcare.
Read more: French school strike: How does the ‘minimum reception service’ work?
4. Grève perlée
A grève perlée (which would initially appear to translate as a ‘pearly’ or ‘beaded strike’) is not a full strike but rather a slowdown or reduction in productivity.
However, the term is also used to describe intermittent and repeated cessations, and was employed widely in 2018, when SNCF unions decided to organise 36 strike days over three months, with two in every five days involving industrial action.
The verb perler can be used to describe something that is formed bit by bit, or something which produces droplets of fluid, and this idea offers a nod towards the drawn-out, often sporadic nature of this type of industry action.
5. Grève illimitée
A grève illimité (unlimited strike) has no fixed end date, and so the strike can be renewed if a solution is not found.
This is opposed to a grève carrée or simple, which can only last for a certain amount of time.
There is also a grève reconductible, which can be repeated if workers vote in favour of continued action.
6. Piquet de grève
Piquet de grève, or picket line, refers to the groups of workers who stand outside their place of work to try to block the entrance and dissuade their colleagues from entering.
7. Grève générale
A grève générale (general strike) involves workers from across different sectors.
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